Sodium starch glycolate is the sodium salt of carboxymethyl ether. It is white to off-white, odorless, tasteless, and free-flowing powder. It is produced by cross-linking and carboxy methylation of potato starch. It can also be manufactured from other starch foods such as corn, wheat, and rice. Sodium starch glycolate is practically insoluble in water and insoluble in most organic solvents. It exists in the form of oval, rounded, irregularly shaped, or spherical granules. These granules exhibit considerable swelling upon contact with water.
Based on the empirical formula and molecular weight, sodium starch glycolate can be classified into two types: type A and type B. Based on pH value, it is classified into three types that include type C. Type A and Type B are sodium salts of cross-linked, partly O-carboxymethylated potato starch. On the other hand, type C is formed as sodium salt of partly O-carboxymethylated starch, cross-linked by physical dehydration.
Type A, B, and C can be differentiated from each other by checking their pH, sodium, and sodium chloride content. Starch is carboxymethylated by reacting it with sodium choloroacetate in an alkaline, non-aqueous medium, usually denatured methanol or ethanol. This is then followed by neutralization of citric acid, acetic acid, and other acids.
Sodium starch glycolate is widely used in pharmaceuticals, as a disintegrant, in the formation of tablets and capsules. It absorbs water rapidly, which leads to fast disintegration of granules and tablets. Sodium starch glycolate dissolves better, which makes it easier for the body to absorb medication. It can also be used as gelling and suspending agent. The usage of sodium starch glycolate in the formation of tablets and capsules involves either wet granulation or direct compression. In higher concentration, it can be used as a dissolution acing agent.
Sodium starch glycolate can be more effective when used as an intragranular or extragranular disintegrant or when equally divided between intragranular and extragranular locations. Sodium starch glycolate does not have any side-effect. However, depending on the source, it can cause adverse effects on certain individuals.
People with allergy to corn or with celiac disease may experience adverse effects. Tablets or capsules that are prepared using sodium starch glycolate have excellent storage properties, due to its physical properties such as stability and hygroscopic nature. In order to prevent caking, sodium starch glycolate should be kept in a well-closed container. This can protect it from changes in temperature and humidity. One of the key characteristics of sodium starch glycolate is that its physical properties remain the same for up to 3 years, if handled and stored at a moderate humidity and temperature.
Europe and North America regions dominate the global sodium starch glycolate market, followed by Asia Pacific. This growth of the market is attributable to application of sodium starch glycolate in pharmaceuticals. Countries such as the U.S., Switzerland, China, and India have large-sized pharmaceutical companies. Technological advancements for using this product is increasing day by day as medical industry have wide applications globally. Rest of the World held minimum share of the global market in the last few years. However, the market in the region is expected to expand during the forecast period.
Some of the key players operating in the sodium starch glycolate market are Muby Chemicals, Shree Chemicals, DFE Pharma, Patel Chem Specialties Pvt. Ltd., and Prachin Chemical.